Malcolm Gladwell has written, "Success is a function of persistence and doggedness and the willingness to work hard for twenty-two minutes to make sense of something that most people would give up on after thirty seconds."  Practice here and now.



For more than six decades, the Federal Aviation Administration has relied on employees of airplane manufacturers to do government-required safety inspections as planes are being designed or assembled.


But critics say the system, dubbed the "designee program," is too cozy as company employees do work for an agency charged with keeping the skies safe while being paid by an industry that the FAA is regulating.


"There is a potential conflict of interest," said Todd Curtis, a former Boeing Co. safety engineer and creator of, a website that focuses on airline safety. "They (the FAA) don't have the money to do all of the oversight. It's a question of being practical."


The FAA's oversight duties are coming under greater scrutiny after deadly crashes involving Boeing 737 Max jets operated by airlines in Ethiopia and Indonesia, killing a total of 346 people. The U.S. was nearly alone in allowing the planes to keep flying until it relented on Wednesday after getting satellite evidence showing the crashes may be linked.


The FAA concedes that it doesn't have resources to keep up with a growing aviation industry, and experts say it lacks the personnel to inspect every component, especially those made in other countries. But the agency says the designee program's results speak for themselves. The U.S. has the safest skies in the world. Until April of last year, U.S. passenger airlines had not had a fatality since 2009, while carrying several billion passengers.


Source: FAA’s Close Ties to Boeing Questioned After 2 Deadly Crashes, Associated Press, NYTimes, March 15, 2019.


After reading the scenario, respond to A, B, and C below:


A. Describe a bureaucratic duty, as described in the scenario, of the Federal Aviation Administration.

B. In the context of the scenario, explain how the response in part A is affected by Congressional gridlock.

C. In the context of the scenario, explain how iron triangles impact public policy.


Use the information graphic to answer the questions.


A. Identify a popular trend with respect to the publics’ view of the federal government between 2013-2018.

B. Describe a similarity or difference between the publics’ attitude toward government, as illustrated in the information graphic, and draw a conclusion about that similarity or difference.

C. Explain how attitudes toward the federal government, as shown in the information graphic, has impacted the federal budget process.



“Lake Nixon Club is an amusement place owned by respondent and his wife, located 12 miles from Little Rock, Ark. It has recreation facilities, including swimming, boating, and dancing, and a snack bar serving four food items, at least three of which contain ingredients coming from outside the State. The Club leases 15 paddle boats on a royalty basis from an Oklahoma company (from which it purchased one boat) and operates a juke box which, along with records it plays, is manufactured outside Arkansas. The Club is advertised in a monthly magazine distributed at Little Rock hotels, motels, and restaurants, in a monthly newspaper published at a nearby Air Force base, and over two area radio stations. Approximately 100,000 whites patronize the establishment each season and are routinely furnished "membership" cards in the "club," on payment of a 25-cent fee. [African-Americans] are denied admission.


Mr. Justice Brennan delivered the opinion of the Court:


Petitioners, [African-American] residents of Little Rock, Arkansas, brought this class action in the District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas to enjoin respondent from denying them admission to a recreational facility called Lake Nixon Club, owned and operated by respondent, Euell Paul, and his wife. The complaint alleged that Lake Nixon Club was a ‘public accommodation’ subject to the provisions of Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and that respondent violated the Act in refusing petitioners admission solely on racial grounds.  After trial, the District Court, although finding that respondent had refused petitioners admission solely because they were [African-Americans], dismissed the complaint on the ground that Lake Nixon Club was not within any of the categories of ‘public accommodations’ covered by the 1964 Act. The Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit affirmed, one judge dissenting.  We granted certiorari. We reverse.”

Source: Daniel v. Paul, 395 U.S. 298 (1969) JUSTIA


Based on the information above, respond to the following questions.


A. Identify a common constitutional principle used to make a ruling in both U.S. v. Lopez (1995) and Daniel v. Paul (1969).

B. Based on the constitutional principle identified in part A, explain why the facts of U.S. v. Lopez (1995) led to a different holding than the holding in Daniel v. Paul (1969).

C. Describe an action that the people of Arkansas could take to respond to the Daniel v. Paul decision if it disagreed with the decision.





Often it is boasted that the United States is history’s greatest democracy.  Assess voter turnout in United States elections and present an argument that commends or criticizes your findings.


In your essay, you must:

  • Articulate a defensible claim or thesis that responds to the prompt and establishes a line of reasoning.

  • Support your claim with at least TWO pieces of accurate and relevant information.  At least ONE piece of evidence must be from one of the following foundational documents – U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence, Letter from a Birmingham Jail.

  • Use a second piece of evidence from another foundational document from the list or from your study of the electoral process

  • Use reasoning to explain why your evidence supports your claim/thesis

  • Respond to an opposing or alternative perspective using refutation, concession, or rebuttal

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