American Political Ideologies and Beliefs

ARTISANSHIP

Each unit of study is broken down into a series of essential objectives and learning points.  Each objective requires a context of understanding.  You will find that context here.  Remember learning follows after Darwin not Newton.  Artisanship is always a work in progress.  In the end we hope that by distilling the content of American government and politics to its bare essentials a larger number then before can count themselves as educated citizens.  Without such a citizenry our hope for a bright future is in peril.  Demonstrate here what you have learned.

  • How are American political beliefs formed and how do they evolve over time?

  • How do political ideology and core values influence government policy making?

Unit 4: American Political Ideologies and Beliefs

 

American political beliefs are shaped by founding ideals, core values, and the changing demographics of the citizenry.  The beliefs about government, politics, and the individual’s role in the political system influence the creation of ideological trends that span decades impacting public policies.

 

Enduring Understandings:

 

  1. Citizens’ beliefs about government are shaped by the intersection of demographics, political culture, and dynamic social change. (Methods of political analysis)

  2. Public opinion is measured through scientific polling, and the results of public opinion polls influence public policies and institutions. (Methods of political analysis)

  3. Widely held political values shape the policy choices available in American politics. (Competing policy-making interests)

 

Learning Objectives:

 

  1. Explain the relationship between core beliefs of U.S. citizens and attitudes about the role of government.

  2. Explain how cultural factors influence political attitudes and socialization.

  3. Describe the elements of a scientific poll.

  4. Explain the quality and credibility of claims based on public opinion data.

  5. Explain how ideologies of the two major parties shape policy debates.

  6. Explain how U.S. political culture (e.g. values, attitudes, and beliefs) influences the formation, goals, and implementation of public policy over time.

  7. Describe different political ideologies on the role of government in regulating the marketplace.

  8. Explain how political ideologies vary on the government’s role in regulating the marketplace.

  9. Explain how political ideologies vary on the role of government in addressing social issues.

  10. Explain how different ideologies impact policy on social issues.

4.1     Explain the relationship between core beliefs of U.S. citizens and attitudes about the role of government.

1. A shared consensus, codified in our constitution, has agreed that our political institutions have all of the following goals EXCEPT

 

a.  Protect our freedoms

b.  Promote the general welfare

c.  Keep us safe

d.  Minimalize diversity

2. The American political culture roots its governing political systems in

 

a.  The consent of the people

b.  Coercion

c.  Rule by elites

d. Compulsion

 

3. It is argued that institutions alone, like our three branches, are insufficient to maintain a healthy political system.  In addition to our institutions what else is necessary to preserve a strong democracy?

 

a.  A democratic political culture

b.  An army of volunteer servicemen

c.  A diverse demographic of people

d.  Wealthy landowners who create jobs

 

4. All of the following are tenets found in our unique political culture EXCEPT

 

a.  Rule of law

b.  Limited government

c.  Individual liberty

d.  Centralized planning

5. Political scientist William C. Mitchell has created a list of American beliefs, values and norms.  On his list you would find: “To be legitimate, political authority and power must be rational and legal.”  Which of the following would be a real life example of this American belief, value and norm?

 

a.  Reliance on a written constitution

b.  The War of Drugs

c.  The Senate minority leadership has decided to block and inhibit the president’s agenda

d.  The Supreme Court used judicial review to check the president’s unilateral immigration policy

6. Political scientist William C. Mitchell has created a list of American beliefs, values and norms.  On his list you would find: “Political interpretations and assessments tend to be moralistic.”  Which of the following would be a real life example of this American belief, value and norm?

 

a.  A cabinet level appointee was forced to resign due to a conflict of interest

b.  The War of Drugs

c.  The Senate minority leadership has decided to block and inhibit the president’s agenda

d.  The Supreme Court used judicial review to check the president’s unilateral immigration policy

 

7. Political scientist William C. Mitchell has created a list of American beliefs, values and norms.  On his list you would find: “Political power is tangible and limited in quantity, and tends to be evil.”  Which of the following would be a real life example of this American belief, value and norm?

 

a.  The Senate minority leadership has decided to block and inhibit the president’s agenda

b.  The Supreme Court used judicial review to check the president’s unilateral immigration policy

c.  A cabinet level appointee was forced to resign due to a conflict of interest

d.  The War of Drugs

 

8. Political scientist William C. Mitchell has created a list of American beliefs, values and norms.  On his list you would find: “Politics tends to be thought of as a game.”  Which of the following would be a real life example of this American belief, value and norm?

 

a.  The Senate minority leadership has decided to block and inhibit the president’s agenda

b.  The Supreme Court used judicial review to check the president’s unilateral immigration policy

c.  A cabinet level appointee was forced to resign due to a conflict of interest

d.  The War of Drugs

9. Political scientist William C. Mitchell has created a list of American beliefs, values and norms.  On his list you would find: “Public office is a public trust, and political action should be taken only in the public interest.”  Which of the following would be a real life example of this American belief, value and norm?

 

a.  The Senate minority leadership has decided to block and inhibit the president’s agenda

b.  The Supreme Court used judicial review to check the president’s unilateral immigration policy

c.  A cabinet level appointee was forced to resign due to a conflict of interest

d.  The War of Drugs

 

10. Which of the following is not part of our commonly held political culture?

 

a.  Liberty

b.  Equality of results

c.  Self reliance

d.  Limited government

 

11. In his seminal description of American democracy, in 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville a disinterested Frenchmen made numerous prescient observations.  Taken from one of his letters at the time read the passage below and find the main idea.

 

“You say that institutions are only half my subject. I go farther than you, and I say that they are not even half. You know my ideas well enough to know that I accord institutions only a secondary influence on the destiny of men. Would to God I believed more in the omnipotence of institutions! I would have more hope for our future, because by chance we might, someday, stumble onto the precious piece of paper that would contain the recipe for all wrongs, or on the man who knew the recipe. But, alas, there is no such thing, and I am quite convinced that political societies are not what their laws make them, but what sentiments, beliefs, ideas, habits of the heart, and the spirit of the men who form them, prepare them in advance to be, as well as what nature and education have made them. If this truth does not emerge, at every turn, from my book…”

 

a.  The very success of American democracy is found in its institutions

b.  The very success of American democracy is found in it culture and customs

c.  The very success of American democracy is due to [g]od

d.  Corruption and graft threaten American democracy

 

12. Public trust in the government is an important indicator of a healthy democracy.  What conclusion can be drawn from the longitudinal data below?

 

Public Trust in the Federal Government: 1958-2014

 

1958: 73%

1964: 77%

1968: 61%

1976: 35%

1980: 32%

1987: 48%

1998: 31%

2006: 30%

2010: 23%

a.  Public trust is an accurate indicator of government success

b.  Republicans are trusted more than Democrats

c.  Trust increases during war conditions

d.  Trust in government has steadily declined over time

4.2     Explain how cultural factors influence political attitudes and socialization.

1. In addition to demographic influences, our political ideology is most impacted by

 

a.  Family

b.  Education

c.  Social media

d.  Age

 

2. Certain demographic characteristics push us toward one side or the other of the political spectrum.  Which of the following demographic characteristics plays the LEAST role in influencing our politics?

 

a.  Gender

b.  Race

c.  Religion

d.  IQ

 

3. Political socialization involves the process of

 

a.  Learning how to think politically

b.  Running for public office

c.  Leaving one political party for another

d.  Becoming a public servant

4. Tom has just retired to Florida after a successful career as a dentist in the western suburbs of Chicago.  Using the demographic clues provided where would Tom most likely be found on the political spectrum?  

 

a.  Liberal Democrat

b.  Moderate Democrat

c.  Moderate Republican

d.  Conservative Republican

 5. Tom was the first African American to join the prodigious Chicago law firm of Kirkland and Ellis.  Using the demographic clues provided where would Tom most likely be found on the political spectrum?  

 

a.  Liberal Democrat

b.  Moderate Democrat

c.  Moderate Republican

d.  Conservative Republican

 

6. Mary is an evangelical Protestant stay-at-home mom from rural Georgia who never went to college.  Using the demographic clues provided where would Mary most likely be found on the political spectrum?  

 

a.  Liberal Democrat

b.  Moderate Democrat

c.  Moderate Republican

d.  Conservative Republican

 

7. Mary is single and lives in Seattle, Washington.  She just finished her graduate degree in Environmental Science.  Using the demographic clues provided where would Mary most likely be found on the political spectrum?  

 

a.  Liberal Democrat

b.  Moderate Democrat

c.  Moderate Republican

d.  Conservative Republican

 

8. Which of the following scenarios would provide an example of the common political science adage that “zip code is destiny”?

 

a.  Tom was raised by conservative Republicans and has grown up to be indifferent to politics

b.  Tom was raised in the Deep South and despite going to community college remains a loyal Democrat

c.  Tom was raised in the Deep South and despite going to community college remains a loyal Republican

d.  Tom married a devout Catholic and has subsequently converted to the faith

 

9. When political scientists talk about cross cutting cleavages they are referring to

 

a.  Tensions between political candidates

b.  Inappropriately used public opinion polls

c.  Demographic tensions on the political spectrum

d.  Dirty tricks played on the campaign trial

 

10. Globalization has influenced political socialization around the world.  All of the following democratic ideals have spread due to globalization EXCEPT

 

a.  Religious toleration

b.  Gender equity

c.  Environmental sympathy

d.  Extreme class stratification

 

4.3     Describe the elements of a scientific poll. 

 

1. When John Doe assesses government, both nationally and locally, he affirms its representative and responsive nature.  He possesses high efficacy.  Which of the following would be the most likely outcome?

 

a.  John Doe is a Democrat

b.  John Doe votes

c.  John Doe has a job

d.  John Doe is an elected official

 

2. What is the most important benefit of public opinion polls?

 

a.  Determining what people are thinking about at any given moment

b.  Discovering rigidly held political beliefs

c.  Find discrepancies between fact and fiction

d.  Testing political algorithms

 

3. Testing the validity of public opinion polls depends upon following critical cautionary steps.  All of the following are critical cautionary steps when assessing the validity of public opinion polls EXCEPT

 

a.  Were questions asked on the telephone?

b.  Size of random sample

c.  Margin of error

d.  Wording of questions

 

4. Stan works for a congressional candidate.  In an attempt to persuade prospective voters he contracts with a polling service to ask leading questions that disparage the reputation of the opposition candidate.  In political science what is this practice called?

 

a.  Values inventory

b.  Push poll

c.  Public opinion poll

d.  Random sample

 

CNN/ORC Poll.  May 29-31, 2015.  N=1,025 adults nationwide.  Margin of error +/- 3.

 

“We’d like to get your overall opinion of some people in the news.  As I read each name, please say if you have a favorable or unfavorable opinion of these people – or if you have never heard of them.  Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts.”

 

Favorable        Unfavorable    No Opinion     Never Heard of

   33%                     24%               16%                     27%

 

Source: pollingreport.com

 

5.  Using the cautionary steps when assessing public opinion polls, what statement below most accurately describes the validity of the poll above?

 

a.  The size of the sample is too small and appears not to be random

b.  The question is confusing to read

c.  CNN is a biased news source and therefore invalid

d.  The poll appears valid

 

6. Scientifically conducted public opinion polls benefit our democracy in all of the following ways EXCEPT

 

a.  Advantages elite opinion

b.  Collect opinions on important issues

c.  Improve efficacy

d.  Assists in grouping prospective voters

 

7. Which of the following best exemplifies the medias role as a scorekeeper?

 

a.  When ABC news uncovers unpaid taxes by a sitting member of the Senate

b.  When CNN plays horse-race journalism by showing polls that predict an election outcome

c.  When FOX news continually runs stories about an upcoming affirmative action case in the Court

d.  When NBC news fact checks a presidential speech

 

8. The veracity of public opinion polls depends upon a number of scientifically measured practices.  All of the following are necessary for a poll to be considered valid EXCEPT

 

a. Funded by the government

b. Objective

c. Random samples

d. Large enough sample

 

9. Which of the following public opinion polls would be the most useful?

 

a. A poll paid for by candidate Hillary Clinton

b. An Internet based poll on Facebook

c. A poll on immigration with a +/- 2 margin

d. A push poll

 

10. Which of the following forms of political participation would most likely be ill affected by declining efficacy?

 

a.  Litigation

b.  Letter writing

c.  Voting

d.  Joining a civic group

 

4.4     Explain the quality and credibility of claims based on public opinion data.

1. Elected officials often use public opinion polls for the following reasons EXCEPT

 

a. Short cut to hear from their constituents

b. Helps politicians to properly represent the citizenry

c. Helps to build political efficacy

d. Best means to manipulate public opinion

 

2. It has been said that the modern information age ironically finds its citizens misinformed. All of the following explain this irony EXCEPT

 

a. Information acquisition has gotten expensive

b. Lack of trust in our ruling elite

c. Demagoguery

d. Unfiltered viral videos

3. Use the following passage from a notable political scientist to answer this question:

 

“[Democratic] government…cannot be worked successfully…unless there is an independent, expert organization for making the unseen facts intelligible to those who have to make the decisions.”  Or in other words, a free and independent press is essential.  If an elite media is no longer an option then perhaps the responsibility is ours.  Each and every citizen must collaborate together, as best as they can, to create pictures and images that simplify the great issues facing our society.”

 

The primary argument of this passage is

 

a. The government has neglected their responsibility to inform citizens properly

b. Elite media offer only condescending messages

c. For democracy to work we must band together to make the complex simple and confusing clear

d. The government has become to complicated for anyone to understand

4. Use the following passage from a notable political scientist to answer this question:

 

“[Democratic] government…cannot be worked successfully…unless there is an independent, expert organization for making the unseen facts intelligible to those who have to make the decisions.”  Or in other words, a free and independent press is essential.  If an elite media is no longer an option then perhaps the responsibility is ours.  Each and every citizen must collaborate together, as best as they can, to create pictures and images that simplify the great issues facing our society.”

 

Why do you suppose the elite media is less of an option today to inform us?

 

a. There is no longer an elite media

b. Explosion of media outlets have diluted elite messaging

c. Elites have become too expensive to listen to

d. Elite media has radicalized

5. Political science argues that the greatest check on government action at each level is

 

a. Supreme Court opinions

b. Elite opinion

c. Public opinion

d. International government opinion

 

6. When the media reports like a horse race it means

 

a. Emphasis is placed on popularity rather than issues

b. Emphasis is placed on sports

c. Emphasis is placed on big money donors

d. Emphasis is placed on southern voters

7. Which of the following headlines would be an example of objective media reporting?

 

a. “President signs Executive Order on free trade”

b. “President free trade policy reveals how corrupt all Democrats are”

c. “Free trade is anti-American”

d. “Executive Orders are an abuse of Presidential power”

 

8. Use the following data set to answer the question that follows:

 

Network Evening News Ratings

 

1980    42.3

1985    37.5

1990    30.4

1995    26.4

2000    23.5

2005    18.9

 

What conclusion can be drawn from the data set above?

 

a. Network evening news ratings have remained the same over time

b. Network evening news ratings have dramatically dropped over time

c. Network evening news ratings have fluctuated over time

d. Network evening news ratings have suffered due to cable news

 

9. Use the following data set to answer the question that follows:

 

Network Evening News Ratings

 

1980    42.3

1985    37.5

1990    30.4

1995    26.4

2000    23.5

2005    18.9

 

What is the most likely explanation for the trend in this data?

 

a. Network news is no longer reliable

b. Network news is too expensive

c. Network news faces more and more competition

d. Network news cannot be streamed

 

10. Which of the following polls would be the least helpful?

 

a. A Pew Research poll

b. A Gallup poll

c. An ABC-New York Times poll

d. An open access Internet poll

4.5     Explain how ideologies of the two major parties shape policy disputes.

 

1. There is widespread appeal to hearing “rags to riches” stories. We value those that find upward mobility in their hard work.  The commonality of American Dream stories in our society suggest that

 

a.  We all share in a common American political culture

b.  Democratic policies work best for those who need government most

c.  Republicans care for more people in real life ways

d.  Political parties are no longer necessary

 

2. Which of the following is commonly shared in our unique American political culture?

 

a.  Autonomy – free to make independent decisions

b.  Equality of results – i.e. income equality

c.  Libertarianism – free from coercive government interference

d.  Government assistance – the best way to advance is through government helps

 

3. In our Declaration of Independence (1776) Thomas Jefferson wrote: “We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

 

Today these words

 

a.  Reflect the bedrock of our unique American political culture

b.  Reflect the primary platform of the Democratic Party

c.  Reflect the primary platform of the Republican Party

d.  Reflect the source of our deeply divided political ideologies

 

4. The difference between political culture and political ideology is best explained by saying

 

a.  The prior is the “how” and the latter is the “why”

b.  The prior is the “how” and the latter is the “what”

c.  The prior is the “what” and the latter is the “why”

d.  The prior is the “what” and the latter is the “how”

 

5.  Why do our political ideologies often lead to divisive partisanship?

 

a.  Ideologies too often are malleable

b.  Rigid ideologies find compromise difficult

c.  The American people do not like zero sum games

d.  Democrats and Republicans come from different parts of the country

 

6. Policy disputes are shaped by the ideologies of our two major political parties.  Democrats are generally influenced by

 

a.  Conservative ideologies

b.  Liberal ideologies

c.  Libertarian ideologies

d.  Communitarian ideologies

7. Policy disputes are shaped by the ideologies of our two major political parties.  Republicans are generally influenced by

 

a.  Conservative ideologies

b.  Liberal ideologies

c.  Libertarian ideologies

d.  Communitarian ideologies

 

8. Tom prefers a government willing to play the role of the “nanny.”  Broad safety nets, put in place by the government, should protect American citizens from personal tragedies.  Tom’s ideological home is with

 

a.  Conservatives and Republicans

b.  Liberals and Democrats

c.  Libertarians and Independent parties

d.  Communitarians

 

9. Tom is reluctant to give over his health care decisions to government programs.  Government, although necessary, often causes more problems than providing solutions.  Tom’s ideological home is with

 

a.  Conservatives and Republicans

b.  Liberals and Democrats

c.  Libertarians and Independent parties

d.  Communitarians

 

10. Different ideologies, for example conservatism and liberalism, proliferate in American life because of

 

a.  An authoritarian government that limits our common sense solutions

b.  Declining efficacy along with a rigid class sytem

c.  Our fundamental commitment to limiting the number of legal factions

d. Our fundamental commitment to basic freedoms of expression

 

4.6     Explain how U.S. political culture (e.g. values, attitudes, and beliefs) influences the formation, goals, and implementation of public policy over time.

 

1. Public policy in America is often limited by our shared Creed.  Widely held political values shape the policy choices available in American politics.  All of the following values are considered a part of our commonly held Creed EXCEPT 

 

a.  Liberty

b.  Egalitarianism

c.  Laissez-faire

d.  Statist

 

2. What role do elites play in the policy making process?

 

a.  Disproportionate role

b.  Irrelevant role

c.  Disconnected role

d.  Inappropriate role

 

3. Cultural imperatives impact our public policy debates.  All of the following wedge issues pose challenges to traditional American values EXCEPT

 

a.  Cutting taxes

b.  Immigration policies

c.  Government surveillance policies

d.  War on Terror

 

4. Elites can unilaterally bypass cultural policy limitations in all of the following ways EXEPT

 

a.  Presidents can issue Executive Orders

b.  Courts can make rulings

c.  State governments can become policy laboratories

d.  Holding national elections

 

 5. Throughout our history governments have served as both defenders and agents of the American Creed.  Which of the following policies best exemplifies the American value self-reliance?

 

a.  Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity (1996)

b.  Break up of corporate monopolies

c.  Legalization of medicinal marijuana

d.  Civil Rights Act of 1964

 

6. Throughout our history governments have served as both defenders and agents of the American Creed.  Which of the following policies best exemplifies the American value progressive populism?

 

a.  Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity (1996)

b.  Break up of corporate monopolies

c.  Legalization of medicinal marijuana

d.  Civil Rights Act of 1964

 

7. Throughout our history governments have served as both defenders and agents of the American Creed.  Which of the following policies best exemplifies the American value egalitarianism?

 

a.  Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity (1996)

b.  Break up of corporate monopolies

c.  Legalization of medicinal marijuana

d.  Civil Rights Act of 1964

 

8. Throughout our history governments have served as both defenders and agents of the American Creed.  Which of the following policies best exemplifies the American value liberty?

 

a.  Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity (1996)

b.  Break up of corporate monopolies

c.  Legalization of medicinal marijuana

d.  Civil Rights Act of 1964

9. A fundamental question we as a democratic-republic have had to answer since our inception is

 

a.  Should we have a king?

b.  How many states should we have?

c.  Should our Supreme Court be the least dangerous branch?

d. How strong should our central government be?

 

10. Our Founding Fathers built a nation based upon principled law not men.  Which of the following headlines would be a contemporary example of this?

 

a. “Wall Street mogul found guilty of insider trading”

b.  “President’s rally draws thousands”

c.  “Hollywood starlet considering a run for the Senate”

d.  “Lotto winner pledges to help homeless shelter”

4.7     Describe different political ideologies on the role of government in regulating the  marketplace.

 

1. President Calvin Coolidge said,

 

“After all, the chief business of the American people is business.  They are profoundly concerned wit producing, buying, selling, investing and prospering in the world.  I am strongly of the public opinion that the great majority of people will always find these the moving impulses of our life.”

 

From this quote and what you already know, what is the relationship between our government and the economy?

 

a.  Government has a role in promoting economic stability

b.  Governments and economies don’t mix

c.  Governments should plan economic outputs

d.  Governments should pick entrepreneurial winners and losers

 

2. Which of the following groups actively support government regulation of the market?

 

a.  Conservatives

b.  Liberals

c.  Libertarians

d. This issue transcends partisanship.  Most Americans favor these public policies.

 

3. Which of the following groups actively support government deregulation of the market?

 

a.  Conservatives

b.  Liberals

c.  Libertarians

d. This issue transcends partisanship.  Most Americans favor these public policies.

4. Which of the following groups actively support little or no government regulation of the market?

 

a.  Conservatives

b.  Liberals

c.  Libertarians

d. This issue transcends partisanship.  Most Americans favor these public policies.

 

 5. Which of the following groups would most likely favor the government protecting economic underdogs?

 

a.  Conservatives

b.  Liberals

c.  Libertarians

d. This issue transcends partisanship.  Most Americans favor these public policies.

 

6. Libertarians would favor all of the following economic issues EXCEPT

 

a.  Laissez-faire attitudes

b.  Trust in markets

c.  Raising the military budget

d.  Little to no government regulation

 

7. Republicans would favor all of the following economic issues EXCEPT

 

a.  Lowering marginal tax rates

b.  Government as an economic referee

c.  Reducing government spending

d. Legalizing marijuana

 

8. Democrats typically promote Keynesian economic theories.  Keynesian economic theories are characterized by  

 

a.  Balanced budgets

b.  Low taxes

c.  Deregulation of the means of production

d.  Government debt

 

9. All of the following values are associated with Republican economic policy EXCEPT

 

a.  Laissez-faire attitudes

b.  Self reliance

c.  Public ownership

d.  Rugged individualism

 

10. Democrats would favor all of the following economic issues EXCEPT

 

a.  Deregulation of utilities

b.  Raising the minimum wage

c.  Increasing the inheritance tax

d.  Economic experimentation

4.8     Explain how political ideologies vary on the government’s role in regulating the  marketplace.

1. Pocket-book issues move and mobilize voters perhaps greater than any other issue.  What does this mean?

 

a. We vote by impulse

b. We vote based upon our income

c. We vote based upon our zip code

d. People vote using notes

2. Political scientists claim all of the following issues attract our disproportionate attention EXCEPT

 

a. Stock market prices

b. Home prices

c. Grocery prices

d. Federal court vacancies

3. Democrats would most likely favor this economic policy

 

a. Policies protecting against harmful industrial emissions

b. Policies reducing corporate income taxes

c. Policies giving benefits to banks

d. Policies that limit access to voting

4. Monetary policy in the United States is the primary responsibility of

 

a. The Federal Reserve

b. Congress

c. The Supreme Court

d. The Department of Commerce

 

5. Who would most favor the following headline – “The State of Illinois raises minimum wage”?

 

a. Democrats

b. Republicans

c. Libertarians

d. Both Democrats and Republicans

 

6. Republicans would most likely favor this economic policy

 

a. Policies protecting against harmful industrial emissions

b. Policies reducing corporate income taxes

c. Policies giving benefits to bank customers

d. Policies that limit access to voting

 

7. All of the following characterize conservative economic values EXCEPT

 

a. Self-reliance

b. Rugged individualism

c. Entrepreneurship

d. Dependence on social services

 

8. Who would most favor the following headline – “The State of Illinois balances its budget”?

 

a. Democrats

b. Republicans

c. Libertarians

d. Both Democrats and Republicans

 

9. Which of the following economic policies would receive bipartisan support?

 

a. Inheritance taxes

b. Minimum wage

c. Market stability and certainty

d. Budget deficits

 

10. Keynesian economic theories

 

a. Advocated for government austerity cuts

b. Advocated for government debt

c. Advocated for the government to balance its budget

d. Advocated for government ambivalence

 

4.9     Explain how political ideologies vary on the role of government in addressing social issues.

 

1. Our demographic inheritance plays an important part in our political socialization.  In addition to our demographic inheritance, which of the following factors likely provides an important cleavage when determining our political destiny?

 

a.  Gender

b.  Religious heritage

c.  Economic status

d.  Life experiences

 

2. To cope with the abundant stimuli of our political economy, most of us use heuristics to navigate our way.  Heuristics are like short cuts.  Heuristic devices allow relatively uninformed individuals to act both rationally and confidently.   All of the following could be considered examples of political heuristics EXCEPT

 

a.  Subscriptions to numerous dailies

b.  Party labels

c. Trusted business leaders

d. Elected officials

 

3. “Republican” is the label given to

 

a.  Conservatives

b.  Liberals

c.  Communitarians

d.  Libertarians

 

4. “Democrat” is the label given to

 

a.  Conservatives

b.  Liberals

c.  Communitarians

d.  Libertarians

 

 5. The primary objective of this ideology is individual freedom.  The best way to maximize freedom, according to this group, is to minimize government intervention.

 

a.  Conservatives

b.  Liberals

c.  Communitarians

d.  Libertarians

 

6. The soul of this ideology is social connection over individual liberty.  This viewpoint is willing to give dominion to government over all while individuals subordinate their self-interest to the public good.  In the past they were called Chartists.

 

a.  Conservatives

b.  Liberals

c.  Communitarians

d.  Libertarians

 

7. This ideology tends to be forward looking.  They favor policy experimentation.  They are often characterized as “the tax and spend” party.  Although they oppose government intervention when it comes to private choices, this ideology advocates for the government to address societal injustices.

 

a.  Conservatives

b.  Liberals

c.  Communitarians

d.  Libertarians

 

8. This ideology looks fondly on traditions.  They approve of government intervening to uphold traditional values. They do not, however, welcome government interference in private business affairs.

 

a.  Conservatives

b.  Liberals

c.  Communitarians

d.  Libertarians

 

 

9. The vast majority of our citizens have adopted the labels

 

a.  Conservative and/or liberal

b.  Conservative and/or libertarian

c.  Libertarian and/or communitarian

d.  Liberal and/or Libertarian

Use the exit polling data below from the 2012 presidential election to answer questions 10-11:

 

2011 Total Family income      Total                Vote for Obama (D)               Vote for Romney (R)

     Under $30,00                     20%                            63%                                           35%

   $30,000-$49,00                    21%                            57%                                           42%

   $50,000-$99,00                    31%                            46%                                           52%

   $100,000-$199,00                21%                            44%                                           54%

   $200,000-$249,00                  3%                             47%                                           52%

   $250,000 or more                   4%                             42%                                           55%

Source: Fox News

 

10.  According to the data, the highest percentage of voters in 2012 earned

 

a.  Under $30,00

b.  $30,000-$49,00

c.  $50,000-$99,00

d.  $100,000-$199,00

 

11.  According to the data, what can be said of the typical Republican voter?

 

a.  Republicans live in the Deep South

b.  Republicans count on the lower classes to win elections

c.  Republicans count on educated minority voters

d.  Republican voters live in the middle class

e.  Republicans overwhelmingly are the party of the rich and famous

4.10    Explain how different ideologies impact policy on social issues.

1. Use the following passage to the answer the question that follows:

 

Policy trends concerning the level of government involvement in social issues reflect the success of conservative and liberal perspectives.  Both the Republicans and Democrats, respectively, have built broad coalitions that attract large groups of both advocates and voters.  As an effective heuristic, Republicans attract conservatives while Democrats attract liberals. 

 

Using context clues, which of the following best defines the word heuristic?

 

a. Short cut

b. Road block

c. Obstruction

d. Unwelcoming

 

2. Republicans would most likely favor this social policy

 

a. Pro-life

b. Pro-choice

c. Legalization of marijuana

d. Prison reform

 

3. Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992), favored by Republicans, allowed for

 

a. The prosecution of those growing medicinal marijuana

b. State legislated restrictions on labor unions

c. State legislated restrictions on some abortion practices

d. The prosecution of doctors performing abortions

 

4. Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) was a conservative response to

 

a. Barren v. Baltimore (1833)

b. Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

c. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

d. Roe v. Wade (1973)

 

5. Conservatives would most likely favor this social policy

 

a. School vouchers/school choice

b. Pro-choice

c. Strong public employee unions

d. Higher funding for education

 

6. Democrats would most likely favor this social policy

 

a. Lowering taxes

b. Environmental protections

c. Strong military

d. Law and order

 

7. In the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) a plurality of justices ruled in favor of

 

a. The legitimacy of medicinal marijuana

b. The legitimacy of same-sex marriage

c. The legitimacy of abortion rights

d. The legitimacy of charter schools

 

8. Liberals would most likely favor this social policy

 

a. Lowering taxes

b. LGBT rights

c. War on Drugs

d. Open carry gun laws

 

9. Use the following passage to answer the question that follows:

 

Education is much more than schooling. It is the whole range of activities by which families and communities transmit to a younger generation, not just knowledge and skills, but ethical and behavioral norms and traditions. It is the handing over of a cultural identity. That is why American education has, for the last several decades, been the focus of constant controversy, as centralizing forces from outside the family and community have sought to remake education in order to remake America. They have done immense damage. The federal government should not be a partner in that effort, as the Constitution gives it no role in education. At the heart of the American Experiment lies the greatest political expression of human dignity: The self-evident truth that “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.” That truth rejects the dark view of the individual as human capital — a possession for the creation of another’s wealth.

 

Whose political party platform would you most likely find this passage?

 

a. Democrat

b. Republican

c. Libertarian

d. Both Democrat and Republican

 

10. Use the following passage to answer the question that follows:

 

We will ensure those at the top contribute to our country’s future by establishing a multimillionaire surtax to ensure millionaires and billionaires pay their fair share. In addition, we will shut down the “private tax system” for those at the top, immediately close egregious loopholes like those enjoyed by hedge fund managers, restore fair taxation on multi-million dollar estates, and ensure millionaires can no longer pay a lower rate than their secretaries. At a time of near-record corporate profits, slow wage growth, and rising costs, we need to offer tax relief to middle-class families—not those at the top.

 

Whose political party platform would you most likely find this passage?

 

a. Democrat

b. Republican

c. Libertarian

d. Both Democrat and Republican

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